Spanish II Tutorial: Basic Phrases, Vocabulary and Grammar (2023)

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21. To Come & to Go (Vos present conjugation and preterite, imperfect and future tenses not recorded)

venir - to come
present: come(s) preterite: came imperfect: came future: will come
(yo) vengo vine venía vendré
(tú / vos) vienes / venís viniste venías vendrás
(él / ella / usted) viene vino venía vendrá
(nosotros / nosotras) venimos vinimos veníamos vendremos
(vosotros / vosotras ) venís vinisteis veníais vendréis
(ellos / ellas / ustedes) vienen vinieron venían vendrán
ir - to go
present: go(es) preterite: went imperfect: went future: will go
(yo) voy fui iba iré
(tú / vos) vas fuiste ibas irás
(él / ella / usted) va fue iba irá
(nosotros / nosotras) vamos fuimos íbamos iremos
(vosotros / vosotras ) vais fuisteis ibais iréis
(ellos / ellas / ustedes) van fueron iban irán

The vos conjugation for venir (venís) is different from the tú conjugation (vienes) and identical to the vosotros form in the present tense, but the tú and vos conjugations are identical for ir (vas). Notice that the preterite of ir is the same as the preterite of ser. Context will indicate whether the meaning is was/were or went.

You can also use ir to express to be going to + an infinitive. You just need to insert a between the conjugation of ir and the infinitive.

Voy a estudiar más. I'm going to study more.
Vamos a empezar de nuevo. We're going to start again.

22. To / In and From

to a
from de
in en

Remember to use the prepositional contractions (a + el = al and de + el = del) when anoun with an article follows the preposition.

Vengo de los Estados Unidos. I come from the US.

23. Countries & Nationalities

Africa el Africa Indonesia Indonesia
African africano/a Indonesian indonesio/a
Albania Albania Ireland la Irlanda
Albanian albano/a Irishman irlandés/esa
America la América Israel Israel
American americano/a Israeli israelí
Argentina la Argentina Hebrew hebreo/a
Argentine argentino/a Italy Italia
Asia el Asia (f) Italian italiano/a
Asian asiático/a Japan Japón
Australia Australia Japanese japonés/esa
Australian australiano/a Latvia Letonia
Austria el Austria (f) Latvian letón/ona
Austrian austríaco/a Lithuania Lituania
Belgium la Bélgica Lithuanian lituano/a
Belgian belga Luxembourg Luxemburgo
Bolivia la Bolivia Luxembourger luxemburgués/esa
Bolivian boliviano(a) Macedonia Macedonia
Bosnia la Bosnia Macedonian macedonio/a
Bosnian bosnio/a Malta Malta
Brazil el Brasil Maltese maltés/esa
Brazilian brasileño/a Mexico México
Bulgaria la Bulgaria Mexican mexicano/a
Bulgarian búlgaro/a Netherlands los Países Bajos
Canada Canadá Dutch holandés/esa
Canadian canadiense New Zealand Nueva Zelanda
China China New Zealander neozelandés/esa
Chinese chino/a Nicaragua Nicaragua
Chile la Chile Nicaraguan nicaragüense
Chilean chileno/a Norway Noruega
Colombia Colombia Norwegian noruego/a
Colombian colombiano/a Panama Panama
Costa Rica la Costa Rica Panamanian panameño/a
Costa Rican costarricense Paraguay Paraguay
Croatia la Croacia Paraguayan paraguayo/a
Croatian croata Peru Perú
Cuba la Cuba Peruvian peruano/a
Cuban cubano/a Poland la Polonia
Czech Republic la República Checa Polish polaco/a
Czech checo/a Portugal Portugal
Denmark Dinamarca Portuguese portugués/esa
Danish danés/esa Romania Rumania
Dominican Republic República Dominicana Romanian rumano/a
Dominican dominicano/a Russia Rusia
Ecuador Ecuador Russian ruso/a
Ecuadorian ecuatoriano/a Scotland la Escocia
Egypt Egipto Scottish escocés/esa
Egyptian egipcio/a Serbia Serbia
El Salvador El Salvador Serbian serbio/a
Salvadorean salvadoreño Slovakia la República Eslovaca
England la Inglaterra Slovak eslovaco/a
English inglés/esa Slovenia Eslovenia
Estonia Estonia Slovene esloveno/a
Estonian estonio/a South Africa Sudáfrica
Europe la Europa South African sudafricano/a
European europeo/a Spain España
Finland Finlandia Spanish español/a
Finnish finlandés/esa Sweden Suecia
France Francia Swedish sueco/a
French francés/esa Switzerland la Suiza
Germany Alemania Swiss suizo/a
German alemán/ana Turkey la Turquía
Great Britain la Gran Bretaña Turk turco/a
British británico/a Ukraine Ucrania
Greece Grecia Ukrainian ucraniano/a
Greek griego/a United Kingdom Reino Unido
Guatemala Guatemala United States Estados Unidos
Guatemalan guatemalteco/a Uruguay Uruguay
Honduras Honduras Uruguayan uruguayo/a
Honduran hondureño/a Venezuela Venezuela
Hungary Hungría Venezuelan venezolano/a
Hungarian húngaro/a Wales el país de Gales
Iceland Islandia Welsh galés/esa
Icelandic islandés/esa
India India
Indian indio/a

24. Work & School

accountant el contador musician el músico
actor / actress el actor / la actriz nurse el enfermero
architect el arquitecto official / civil servant el funcionario
author el autor optician el óptico
baker el panadero painter el pintor
banker el banquero pharmacist (chemist) el químico
barber el barbero pharmacist el farmacéutico
bookseller el librero photographer el fotógrafo
businessman el comerciante pilot el piloto
butcher el carnicero plumber el fontanero
carpenter el carpintero policeman el agente de policía
computer programmer el programador postman el cartero
cook el cocinero priest el cura
customer el cliente professor el profesor
dentist el dentista publisher el editor
doctor el médico / el doctor salesman el vendedor
electrician el electricista scientist el científico
employee el empleado secretary la secretaria
engineer el ingeniero servant el criado
firefighter el bombero shoemaker el zapatero
fisherman el pescador singer el cantante
gardener el jardinero soldier el soldado
grocer el dependiente student el estudiante
hair stylist el peluquero surgeon el cirujano
jeweler el joyero tailor el sastre
journalist el periodista teacher el profesor
judge el juez teacher (grade school) el maestro
lawyer el abogado typist el mecanógrafo
librarian el bibliotecario waiter / server el camarero
mason el albañil watchmaker el relojero
mechanic el mecánico worker (blue-collar) el obrero
model el modelo writer el escritor
accounting la contabilidad law el derecho
algebra el álgebra linguistics la lingüística
architecture la arquitectura literature la literatura
art el arte mathematics la matématica
astronomy la astronomía medicine la medicina
biology la biología modern languages las lenguas modernas
botany la botánica music la música
business el comercio natural science las ciencias naturales
chemistry la química painting la pintura
computing (IT) la informática philosophy la filosofía
drawing el dibujo physical education la educación física
earth science la ciencia terrestre physical science las ciencias físicas
economics la economía physics la física
engineering la ingeniería political science las ciencias políticas
English el inglés Portuguese el portugués
French el francés psychology la psicología
geography la geografía religious education la enseñanza religiosa
geometry la geometría science la ciencia
German el alemán sociology la sociología
Greek el griego Spanish el español
history la historia technology la tecnología
Italian el italiano zoology la zoología
Latin el latín

25. To Know People & Facts (Vos present conjugation and preterite, imperfect and future tenses not recorded yet)

conocer - to know people
present: know(s) preterite: knew imperfect: knew future: will know
(yo) conozco conocí conocía conoceré
(tú / vos) conoces / conocés conociste conocías conocerás
(él / ella / usted) conoce conoció conocía conocerá
(nosotros / nosotras) conocemos conocimos conocíamos conoceremos
(vosotros / vosotras) conocéis conocisteis conocíais conoceréis
(ellos / ellas / ustedes) conocen conocieron conocían conocerán
saber - to know facts
present: know(s) preterite: knew imperfect: knew future: will know
(yo) supe sabía sabré
(tú / vos) sabes / sabés supiste sabías sabrás
(él / ella / usted) sabe supo sabía sabrá
(nosotros) sabemos supimos sabíamos sabremos
(vosotros) sabéis supisteis sabíais sabréis
(ellos / ellas / ustedes) saben supieron sabían sabrán

26. Common Words

a lot mucho always siempre
very much muchísimo everyday todos losdías
alittle poco now ahora
very little muy poco usually usualmente
sometimes aveces there ahí
well bien over there allí
after después too bad demasiado malo
poorly mal

27. Conjugating Regular Verbs: Present tense

Verbs in Spanish end in -ar, -er or -ir. Before a verb is conjugated, it is called the infinitive. Removing the last two letters gives you the stem of the verb (cantar is the infinitive to sing, while cant- is the stem.) To conjugate regular verbs in the present tense, add these endings to the stems:

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-ar-er-ir
(yo) -o-o-o
(tú / vos) -as / -ás -es / -és -es / -és
(él / ella / usted) -a-e-e
(nosotros / nosotras) -amos -emos -imos
(vosotros / vosotras) -áis -éis -ís
(ellos / ellas / ustedes) -an -en -en

Remember that verbs do not require the subject pronouns, so just canto means I sing. Here are some more regular verbs:

-ar verbs-er verbs-ir verbs
bailarto danceaprenderto learnvivirto live
desearto wantcomerto eatescribirto write
escucharto listencorrerto runcompartirto share
estudiarto studyleerto readrecibirto receive
hablarto speakvenderto sellsubirto go/come up
practicarto practicebeberto drink
tomarto take / drink comprenderto understand
viajarto travel


Conjugations of regular verbs: (not recorded yet)

hablar aprender vivir
(yo) hablo aprendo vivo
(tú / vos) hablas / hablás aprendes / aprendés vives / vivés
(él / ella / usted) habla aprende vive
(nosotros / nosotras) hablamos aprendemos vivimos
(vosotros / vosotras) habláis aprendéis vivís
(ellos / ellas / ustedes) hablan aprenden viven

To make sentences negative, simply put no in front of the verb.

No hablo bien el español. I don't speak Spanish well.

To indicate that something just happened, you can use acabar de + an infinitive. Acabar (to finish) is a regular verb.

Acaba de comer. He just ate.

28. Vowel changes in present tense

Some verbs have vowel changes in the present tense for all forms except first and second person plural. After dropping the endings (-ar, -er, or -ir), the e of the last syllable changes to ie, and o of the last syllable changes to ue. Some -ir verbs change e of the last syllable to i, while verbs ending in -uir change the i to y for all forms except first and second plural. Note that these irregularities do NOT apply to vos conjugations.

e to ie o to ue e to i ui to uy
pensar - to think
querer - to want, like, love
cerrar - to close
comenzar - to begin
despertar - to awaken
empezar - to begin
entender - to understand
perder - to lose
preferir - to prefer
sentar - to seat
sentir - to regret, feel
contar - to count
poder - to be able
costar - to cost
dormir - to sleep
encontrar - to find, meet
jugar - to play
morir - to die
mostrar - to show
volar - to fly
volver - to return
pedir - to ask (for)
repetir - to repeat
seguir - to follow, go on
servir - to serve
vestir - to dress
construir - to build

(Vos present conjugation and preterite, imperfect and future tenses not recorded yet)

pensar contar pedir construir
(yo) pienso cuento pido
construyo
(tú / vos) piensas / pensás cuentas / cuentás pides / pedís construyes / construís
(él / ella / usted) piensa cuenta pide construye
(nosotros / nosotras) pensamos contamos pedimos construimos
(vosotros / vosotras) pensáis contáis pedís construís
(ellos / ellas / ustedes) piensan cuentan piden construyen

A few other verbs are irregular only in the first person singular form. The rest of the forms tend to follow the regular pattern:

traer to carry traigo I carry
salir to go out salgo I go out
hacer to do hago I do
saber to know I know
dar to give doy I give
ver to see veo I see
tener to have tengo I have
poner to put pongo I put
decir to say digo I say
valer to be worth valgo I am worth
caer to fall caigo I fall
conocer to know conozco I know
deducir to deduce deduzco I deduce
caber to fit quepo I fit

Generally, verbs that end in -cer and -cir add z before the first person singular ending.

We have already seen verbs that are irregular in all conjugations in the present tense, such as ir and ser. Another irregular verb is haber - to have or the impersonal there is/are; however, it is different from tener (which also means to have) because it is not used to show possession. It is only used in compound tenses as a helping verb, i.e. I have seen that movie, which will be covered in Spanish III.

The three completely irregular verbs in the present tense are: (not recorded yet)

ser - to be ir - to go haber - to have
(yo) soy voy he
(tú / vos) eres / sos vas has
(él / ella / usted) es va ha
(nosotros / nosotras) somos vamos hemos
(vosotros / vosotras) sois vais habéis
(ellos / ellas / ustedes) son van han

An impersonal conjugation of haber, hay, is used to mean there is/are in English.

29. Reflexive Verbs

The subject and the object are the same with reflexive verbs - the subject acts upon itself. A reflexive verb in Spanish will be marked with se attached to the end of the infinitive. These verbs are conjugated like regular verbs, except the reflexive pronoun agrees with gender and number and precedes the verb when it is conjugated. Reciprocal verbs are conjugated the same as reflexive except the action passes from one person to another. Reflexive verbs sometimes use the "-self" forms in English, while the reciprocal verbs use "each other."

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acordarse - to remember dormirse - to fall asleep
acostarse - to go to bed irse - to go away/leave
atreverse - to dare levantarse - to get/stand up
bañarse - to take a bath sentarse - to sit down
casarse - to get married quedarse - to stay/remain
despertarse - to wake up quejarse - to complain
desvestirse - to get undressed vestirse - to get dressed

The reflexive pronouns are me, te, se, nos, os and se and they are placed before the conjugated verb:

(yo) me acuerdo I remember
(tú / vos) te acuerdas / te acordás you remember
(él / ella / usted) se acuerda he/she/you remember
(nosotros / nosotras) nos acordamos we remember
(vosotros / vosotras) os acordáis you remember
(ellos / ellas / ustedes) se acuerdan they/you remember


However, when the reflexive verb is in the infinitive and used with another verb, the reflexive pronoun must still agree with the subject of the conjugated verb. It is either attached to the end of the reflexive verb or placed before the conjugated verb:

Vamos a casarnos. / Nos vamos a casar. We're going to get married.
Tengo que irme. / Me tengo que ir. I have to go.
Puede quedarse contigo? / Se puede quedar contigo? Can he stay with you?

The verb contarse is used colloquially to ask how's it going (with you)? ¿Qué te cuentas ?

30. Personal a

When the direct object of a verb (except tener) is a person, it is preceded by a. It isn't used if a number precedes the object. The pronouns alguien (somebody), alguno (someone), nadie (nobody), and ninguno (no one) require a as well, when used as the direct object.

Veo a Juan. I see John.
Conozco a tu amiga. I know your friend.
Veo a alguien. I see somebody.

31. Preterite Tense

The preterite tense expresses an action in the past and is also called the simple past in English. It is used to describe events that have completely finished and are not still happening or that do not indicate repeated actions. It is formed by adding the following endings to the verb stem. For the vos conjugation, an -s may or may not be added to the end of the tú conjugation.

-ar -er / -ir
(yo)
(tú / vos) -aste -iste
(él / ella / usted) -ió
(nosotros / nosotras) -amos -imos
(vosotros / vosotras) -asteis -isteis
(ellos / ellas / ustedes) -aron -ieron

Conjugations of regular verbs in the preterite:

hablar aprender vivir
(yo) hablé aprendí viví
(tú / vos) hablaste aprendiste viviste
(él / ella / usted) habló aprendió vivió
(nosotros / nosotras) hablamos aprendimos vivimos
(vosotros / vosotras) hablasteis aprendisteis vivisteis
(ellos / ellas / ustedes) hablaron aprendieron vivieron

Notice that the nosotros forms of -ar and -ir verbs are the same in the present and preterite tenses.

Viví en España dos años. I lived in Spain for two years.
Ellos hablaron con los niños. They spoke with the children.
Quién comió la fruta? Who ate the fruit?

32. Irregular Preterite Tense


A few verbs are irregular in the preterite tense. Depending on which variety is used, the vos conjugation may or may not add -s to the tú conjugations listed below.

caber - to fit
cupe
cupiste
cupo
cupimos
cupisteis
cupieron

caer - to fall
caí
caíste
cayó
caímos
caísteis
cayeron
conducir - to drive
conduje
condujiste
condujo
condujimos
condujisteis
condujeron
dar - to give
di
diste
dio
dimos
disteis
dieron
decir - to say / tell
dije
dijiste
dijo
dijimos
dijisteis
dijeron
estar - to be
estuve
estuviste
estuvo
estuvimos
estuvisteis
estuvieron
haber - to have
hube
hubiste
hubo
hubimos
hubisteis
hubieron
hacer - to do / make
hice
hiciste
hizo
hicimos
hicisteis
hicieron
ir - to go / ser - to be
fui
fuiste
fue
fuimos
fuisteis
fueron
oír - to hear

oíste
oyó
oímos
oísteis
oyeron
poder - to be able to / can
pude
pudiste
pudo
pudimos
pudisteis
pudieron
poner - to put / place
puse
pusiste
puso
pusimos
pusisteis
pusieron
querer - to want
quise
quisiste
quiso
quisimos
quisisteis
quisieron
saber - to know facts
supe
supiste
supo
supimos
supisteis
supieron
tener - to have
tuve
tuviste
tuvo
tuvimos
tuvisteis
tuvieron
traer - to carry
traje
trajiste
trajo
trajimos
trajisteis
trajeron
venir - to come
vine
viniste
vino

vinimos
vinisteis
vinieron
ver - to see
vi
viste
vio
vimos
visteis
vieron

Ir and ser have the same forms in the preterite tense. Context will make the meaning clear.

33. Imperfect Tense

(Video) Understanding Spanish Grammar Part.1 | The Language Tutor *Lesson 39*

The imperfect is another past tense that is used to express an action as going on in the past, as repeated or habitual, or to translate the English "used to + infinitive." It is also used with mental and physical conditions and for descriptions. The imperfect tends to be used more often than the preterite with these verbs: querer, creer, poder, esperar, tener, and saber.

The imperfect is formed by adding these endings to the infinitive stem:

-ar-er / -ir
(yo) -aba-ía
(tú / vos) -abas -ías
(él / ella / usted) -aba -ía
(nosotros / nosotras) -ábamos -íamos
(vosotros / vosotras) -abais -íais
(ellos / ellas / ustedes) -aban -ían

Regular imperfect tense conjugations:

estar - to be tener - to have decir - to say / tell
(yo) estaba tenía decía
(tú / vos) estabas tenías decías
(él / ella / usted) estaba tenía decía
(nosotros / nosotras) estábamos teníamos decíamos
(vosotros / vosotras) estabais teníais decíais
(ellos / ellas / ustedes) estaban tenían decían

Yo vivía en España. I used to live in Spain.
Luisa estaba triste. Louise was sad.
El vendía radios. He was selling radios.

Only a few verbs are irregular in the imperfect tense:

ser - to beir - to gover - to see
(yo) eraiba veía
(tú / vos) eras ibas veías
(él / ella / usted) era iba veía
(nosotros / nosotras) éramos íbamos veíamos
(vosotros / vosotras) erais ibais veíais
(ellos / ellas / ustedes) eran iban veían

You can use ir in the imperfect tense to express "was/were going to + infinitive" similar to its use in the present tense:

Iba a decir "no." I was going to say "no."

34. Food and Meals

bacon el tocino salad la ensalada
beef la carne de vaca salami el salchichón
beer la cerveza salt la sal
beverage la bebida sandwich el bocadillo
biscuit el bizcocho sauce la salsa
bread el pan sausage la salchicha
breakfast el desayuno soft drink el refresco gaseoso
butter la mantequilla soup la sopa
cake la torta sour cream la crema agria
candy los dulces steak el bistec
cheese el queso stew el guisado
chicken el pollo sugar el azúcar
chocolate el chocolate supper la cena
chop la chuleta tea (iced) el té (helado)
coffee el café toast las tostadas
cookie la galleta turkey el pavo
cottage cheese el requesón veal la ternera
cotton candy el algodón de azúcar vegetable la legumbre
cream la crema vinegar el vinagre
custard las natillas water el agua
dessert el postre whipped cream la nata montada
dinner la comida wine el vino
duck el pato yogurt el yogur
egg el huevo bag la bolsa
fat la grasa bowl el tázon
flour la harina bottle la botella
fried eggs los huevos fritos box la caja
goose el ganso can la lata
ham el jamón can opener abrelatas
hamburger la hamburguesa carton el tetrabrik
honey la miel chopsticks los palillos
hot dog el perro caliente coffee pot la cafetera
ice el hielo colander el colador
ice cream el helado corkscrew el sacacorchos
jam la jalea cup la taza
juice el jugo/ el zumo dish el plato
lamb el cordero fork el tenedor
lobster la langosta frying pan la sartén
lollipop el chupete glass el vaso
lunch el almuerzo jar el tarro
meal la comida jug la jarra
meat la carne kettle la caldera
milk la leche knife el cuchillo
milkshake la malteada lid la tapa
mustard la mostaza napkin la servilleta
mutton la carne de carnero plate el plato
oil el aceite saucer el platillo
omelet la tortilla saucepan la cacerola / el cazo
pepper la pimienta spoon la cuchara
pie el pastel spray can el spray
pork el cerdo table la mesa
rice el arroz tablecloth el mantel
roast el asado teapot la tetera
roll el panecillo tube el tubo

El zumo is used in Spain to refer to fruit juice, while el jugo only refers to juice from meat. In Latin America, el jugo refers to fruit juice.

35. Gustar

Gustar plus a noun means to like something. Literally, it means "to please" and takes an indirect object, so the construction of the sentence will be different than that of English. The verb will most likely only be conjugated in the third person singular or plural because it is agreeing with the noun or infinitive that follows it.*

Me gusta(n)I likeNos gusta(n)we like
Te gusta(n)you likeOs gusta(n)you like
Le gusta(n)he / she / you like(s)Les gusta(n)they / you like

Gusta is used with singular nouns or an infinitive, while gustan is used with plural nouns. It is also possible to add a + pronoun to emphasize the subject, but this is not necessary. These pronouns are the same as the suject pronouns except a mí and a ti.

Me gustan las flores. I like the flowers. (Literally: To me are pleasing the flowers or the flowers are pleasing to me.)
A nosotros nos gusta la casa. We like the house.
No me gusta. I don't like it.
Le gusta a Ud.? Do you like it?
A ellos les gustan los caballos. They like the horses.

As a regular -ar verb, conjugating gustar in the preterite tense is easy:

Me gustaron las flores. I liked the flowers.
No me gustó. I didn't like it.

* It is possible to conjugate gustar with a first or second person pronoun/noun, such as in the Manu Chao song Me gustas tú which means I like you (you are pleasing to me) and could also be written as tú me gustas.

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36. Fruits & Vegetables

almond la almendra barley la cebada
apple la manzana beans los frijoles / las judías
apricot el albaricoque beet la remolacha
avocado el aguacate broccoli el brócoli
banana el plátano / el cambur cabbage la col
berry la baya carrot la zanahoria
blackberry la zarzamora cauliflower la coliflor
blueberry el arándano celery el apio
cherry la cereza chives la cebollana
chestnut la castaña corn el maíz
coconut el coco cucumber el pepino
currant la grosella eggplant la berenjena
date el dátil garlic el ajo
fig el higo green bean la habichuela
fruit la fruta herbs le hierba
grapefruit el pomelo horse-radish el rabano picante
grapes la uva leek el puerro
hazelnut la avellana lentil la lenteja
kiwi el kiwi lettuce la lechuga
lemon el limón mint la menta
lime la lima mushroom el hongo / la seta
lychee el lichi oats la avena
mango el mango onion la cebolla
melon el melón parsley el perejil
olive la aceituna pea el guisante
orange la naranja pepper el pimiento
papaya la papaya potato la papa / la patata
peach el melocotón pumpkin la calabaza
pear la pera radish el rábano
pineapple la piña rhubarb el ruibarbo
plum la ciruela rice el arroz
prune la ciruela pasa rye el centeno
raisin la uva pasa sage la salvia
raspberry la frambuesa seed la semilla
starfruit la carambola spinach la espinaca
strawberry la fresa sweet potato el camote / la batata
walnut la nuez tomato el tomate
watermelon la sandía turnip el nabo
artichoke la alcachofa wheat el trigo
asparagus el espárrago zucchini el calabacín

Los frijoles, la papa, and el hongo are used in Latin America, whereas las judías, la patata, and la seta are used in Spain. El champiñón is also used everywhere for a round, white mushroom. La callampa is only used in Chile for mushroom.

El cambur is used in Venezuela, where el plátano means plantain instead of banana.

El camote is mostly used in Mexico and the Andes.

37. To Take or Drink (Vos present conjugation and preterite, imperfect and future tenses not recorded yet)

tomar - to take / drink
present: take(s) preterite: took imperfect: took future: will take
(yo) tomo tomé tomaba tomaré
(tú / vos) tomas / tomás tomaste tomabas tomarás
(él / ella / usted) toma tomó tomaba tomará
(nosotros / nosotras) tomamos tomamos tomábamos tomaremos
(vosotros / vosotras) tomáis tomasteis tomabais tomaréis
(ellos / ellas / ustedes) toman tomaron tomaban tomarán


When tomar means to drink, it usually refers to alcohol. In Mexico, tomar can be intransitive, as beber is almost never used. In Spain, tomar is always transitive, such as tomar una copa - to have a drink and tomar un café - to have a coffee.

38. Commands / Imperative

To form commands, drop the final -s on the present tense conjugation for the tú form, drop the final -s and accent the vowel for the vos form, and change the final -r of the infinitive to -d for the vosotros form. The other imperative conjugations (for Usted, Ustedes, and nosotros) use the present subjunctive forms. (More about the Subjunctive at #70.) Use the nosotros form to mean Let's + infinitive. Negative commands use no + the present subjunctive conjugations for all forms, except vos may either be identical to the tú form or add an accent to the vowel. The only forms that differ between affirmative and negative commands are tú, vos and vosotros. Verbs that end in -car, -gar and -zar have the following changes as well: c becomes qu, g becomes gu, and z becomes c.

Affirmative Negative (Don't...)
-ar -er or -ir -ar -er or-ir
-a -e -es -as
vos -é / -í -es (or -és) -as (or -ás)
usted -e -a -e -a
nosotros / nosotras -emos -amos -emos -amos
vosotros / vosotras -ad -ed / -id -éis -áis
ustedes -en -an -en -an

¡Habla! = Speak! (tú form)
¡Comed! = Eat! (vosotros form)
¡No comáis! = Don't eat! (negative vosotros form)
¡Beba! = Drink! (Usted form)
¡Coman! = Eat (Ustedes form)
¡No beban! = Don't drink! (negative Ustedes form)

Irregular Imperative (not recorded yet)
Some verbs have irregular tú forms while the other forms use a different stem from the regular verb stem when forming the imperative. These stems are also found in the subjunctive mood, which will be covered later. Negative imperatives only differ from the affirmative for tú, vos and vosotros forms. (Note that the nosotros forms are actually translated as let's / let's not + verb in English since the implied subject is we instead of you.)

dar decir estar haber hacer
give / don't give say / don't say be / don't be have / don't have do / don't do
da / no des di / no digas está / no estés hé / no hayas haz / no hagas
vos dá / no des decí / no digas está / no estés habé / no hayas hacé / no hagas
usted dé / no dé diga / no diga esté / no esté haya / no haya haga / no haga
nosotros demos / no demos digamos / no digamos estemos / no estemos hayamos / no hayamos hagamos / no hagamos
vosotros dad / no deis decid / no digáis estad / no estéis habed / no hayáis haced / no hagáis
ustedes den / no den digan / no digan estén / no estén hayan / no hayan hagan / no hagan
ir poder poner querer saber
go / don't go may you / may you not put / don't put want / don't want know / don't know
ve / no vayas puede / no puedas pon / no pongas quiere / no quieras sabe / no sepas
vos andá / no vayas podé / no puedas poné / no pongas queré / no quieras sabé / no sepas
usted vaya / no vaya pueda / no pueda ponga / no ponga quiera / no quiera sepa / no sepa
nosotros vamos / no vayamos podamos / no podamos pongamos / no pongamos queramos / no queramos sepamos / no sepamos
vosotros id / no vayáis poded / no podáis poned / no pongáis quered / no queráis sabed / no sepáis
ustedes vayan / no vayan puedan / no puedan pongan / no pongan quieran / no quieran sepan / no sepan
salir ser tener traer venir
leave / don't leave be / don't be have / don't have carry / don't carry come / don't come
sal / no salgas sé / no seas ten / no tengas trae / no traigas ven / no vengas
vos salí / no salgas sé / no seas tené / no tengas traé / no traigas vení / no vengas
usted salga / no salga sea / no sea tenga / no tenga traiga / no traiga venga / no venga
nosotros salgamos / no salgamos seamos / no seamos tengamos / no tengamos traigamos / no traigamos vengamos / no vengamos
vosotros salid / no salgáis sed / no seáis tened / no tengáis traed / no traigáis venid / no vengáis
ustedes salgan / no salgan sean / no sean tengan / no tengan traigan / no traigan vengan / no vengan

39. More Negatives

To make sentences negative, place no before the verb. Other negatives may precede or follow the verb, but if they follow, they must follow a negative verb (a double negative). The word order is either no + verb + negative or negative + verb. Nunca means ever when it follows a comparative; jamás means ever when it follows an affirmative verb. Ya no + verb means the same thing as no + verb + más (no more, no longer).

más no more, no longer
nada nothing, (not) anything
nadie nobody, (not) anybody
ninguno (a) no, none
tampoco neither, either
ni nor
ni...ni neither... nor
ni siquiera not even
nunca, jamás never, ever

No bailas nunca. = Nunca bailas. You never dance.
No juego más. = Ya no juego. I no longer play.

Spanish National Anthem: Marcha Real

There are no words to the Spanish national anthem; it is completely instrumental.

Mexican National Anthem: Mexicanos, al Grito de Guerra

(Video) Spanish phrases you can use for a lifetime — Listen repeatedly and learn easily

by Francisco González Bocanegra

Mexicanos, al grito de guerra
El acero aprestad y el bridón;
y retiemble en sus centros la tierra
Al sonoro rugir del cañón.

Ciña ¡oh patria! tus sienes de oliva
De la Paz el arcángel divino,
Que en el cielo tu eterno destino
Por el dedo de Dios se escribió.
Mas si osare un extraño enemigo
Profanar con su planta tu suelo,
Piensa ¡oh patria querida! que el cielo
Un soldado en cada hijo te dio.

¡Guerra, guerra sin tregua al que intente
De la patria manchar los blasones!
¡Guerra, guerra! Los patrios pendones
En las olas de sangre empapad.
¡Guerra, guerra! En el monte, en el valle
Los cañones horrísonos truenen
Y los ecos sonoros resuenen
Con las voces de ¡Unión! ¡Libertad!

Antes, patria, que inermes tus hijos
Bajo el yugo su cuello dobleguen,
Tus campiñas con sangre se rieguen,
Sobre sangre se estampe su pie.
Y tus templos, palacios y torres
Se derrumben con hórrido estruendo,
Y sus ruinas existan diciendo:
De mil héroes la patria aquí fue.

¡Patria! ¡patria! Tus hijos te juran
Exhalar en tus aras su aliento,
Si el clarín con su bélico acento
Los convoca a lidiar con valor.
¡Para ti las guirnaldas de oliva!
¡Un recuerdo para ellos de gloria!
¡Un laurel para ti de victoria!
¡Un sepulcro para ellos de honor!

Mexicanos, al grito de guerra
El acero aprestad y el bridón,
y retiemble en sus centros la tierra
Al sonoro rugir del cañón.

Mexicans, at the cry of battle
lend your swords and bridle;
and let the earth tremble at its center
upon the roar of the cannon.

Your forehead shall be girded, oh fatherland, with olive garlands
by the divine archangel of peace,
For in heaven your eternal destiny
has been written by the hand of God.
But should a foreign enemy
Profane your land with his sole,
Think, beloved fatherland, that heaven
gave you a soldier in each son.

War, war without truce against who would attempt
to blemish the honor of the fatherland!
War, war! The patriotic banners
saturate in waves of blood.
War, war! On the mount, in the vale
The terrifying cannon thunder
and the echoes nobly resound
to the cries of union! liberty!

Fatherland, before your children become unarmed
Beneath the yoke their necks in sway,
May your countryside be watered with blood,
On blood their feet trample.
And may your temples, palaces and towers
crumble in horrid crash,
and their ruins exist saying:
The fatherland was made of one thousand heroes here.

Fatherland, fatherland, your children swear
to exhale their breath in your cause,
If the bugle in its belligerent tone
should call upon them to struggle with bravery.
For you the olive garlands!
For them a memory of glory!
For you a laurel of victory!
For them a tomb of honor!

Mexicans, at the cry of battle
lend your swords and bridle;
and let the earth tremble at its center
upon the roar of the cannon.

FAQs

How can I learn Spanish phrases quickly? ›

Tips to Learn Spanish Fast
  1. Immerse Yourself. ...
  2. Use Spanish in Your Daily Life. ...
  3. Make Studying a Habit. ...
  4. Practice Listening. ...
  5. Make Learning Fun. ...
  6. Find a Language Partner. ...
  7. Learn By Socializing. ...
  8. Make Your Own Vocabulary Lists.
12 Aug 2022

What are 5 easy Spanish words? ›

Basic Spanish Words
  • Hola (Hello)
  • Adios (Goodbye)
  • Gracias (Thank you)
  • Por favor (Please)
  • Si (Yes)
  • Claro (Of course)
  • No (No)
  • Amor (Love)
25 Aug 2021

What are the 100 most used verbs in Spanish? ›

Common Spanish Verbs - Top 100
Ser (to be)Estar (to be)Top 100 Quiz
Haber (to have)Hablar (to speak)Hacer (to make)
Ir (to go)Jugar (to play)
Lavar (to wash)Leer (to read)Limpiar (to clean)
Llamar (to call)Llegar (to arrive)Llenar (to fill)
41 more rows

What are the 10 tips for learning Spanish? ›

Read out loud.
  • Don't expect to be perfect! Can you remember when learned to ride a bicycle? ...
  • Work on developing an “ear” for Spanish. Remember that language is first and foremost oral communication. ...
  • Practice SPEAKING! ...
  • Be consistent. ...
  • Talk to yourself. ...
  • Use flashcards. ...
  • Label your surroundings. ...
  • Be patient.

What are the most important phrases in Spanish? ›

15 Must-Know Basic Spanish Phrases
  • Hola – “Hello”
  • Me llamo… – “ My name is…”
  • ¿Y tú? – “And you?”
  • Mucho gusto – “Nice to meet you”
  • ¿Qué tal? – “How are you?”
  • Nos vemos – “See you”
  • Por favor – “Please”
  • Gracias – “Thank you”

What are the 4 types of sentences in Spanish? ›

Sentence Types
  • Statements & declarations (oraciones enunciativas) ...
  • Questions & Interrogatives (oraciones interrogativas) ...
  • Commands, Orders, Imperatives, Directives (oraciones imperativas) ...
  • Exclamations (oraciones exclamativas) ...
  • Wish (oraciones desiderativas)

What are the 10 most common Spanish verbs? ›

The top 12 most common Spanish verbs you'll want to learn are:
  • Hacer = To do or make.
  • Ir = To go.
  • Venir = To come.
  • Decir = To say or tell.
  • Poder = To be able.
  • Dar = To give.
  • Ver = To see.
  • Saber = To know.

What are the five strategies of vocabulary? ›

Here are five vocabulary instruction strategies to use with elementary students.
  • Word Detective. The most valuable thing that you can do to increase your students' vocabulary is to encourage them to read. ...
  • Semantic Maps. ...
  • Word Wizard. ...
  • Concept Cube. ...
  • Word Connect.
15 Oct 2019

How can I learn vocabulary easily? ›

Here are ten strategies to help you make words stick in your mind and use them in conversation.
  1. No random words. ...
  2. Learn in chunks and scripts. ...
  3. Use your inner voice. ...
  4. Visualise what the word or phrase looks like. ...
  5. Create mnemonics. ...
  6. Use spaced repetition. ...
  7. Dive deeper into etymology. ...
  8. Challenge yourself with word games.
16 Feb 2017

What is the hardest Spanish word to say? ›

Tricks to Tackle the Top 10 Hardest Spanish Words to Pronounce
  • Impermeabilizante (Waterproof)
  • Ferrocarril (Railroad)
  • Desarrolladores (Developers)
  • Difícil, Fácil (Difficult, Easy)
  • Actualmente, Desafortunadamente, Probablemente (Currently, Unfortunately, Probably)
  • Verde, Tarde (Green, Afternoon)
  • Estadística (Statistics)
29 Aug 2022

What is the hardest word to speak in Spanish? ›

Here are ten words that are some of the hardest to pronounce in Spanish.
  • Desarrolladores (developers) ...
  • "Difícil" (difficult) and "Fácil" (easy). ...
  • Probablemente (probably) ...
  • Desafortunadamente (unfortunately) ...
  • Estadísticas (statistics) ...
  • Huevos revueltos (scrambled eggs) ...
  • Idea (idea) ...
  • Aeropuerto (airport)
10 Oct 2021

What are the 7 tenses in Spanish? ›

The following are the simple tenses and their uses:
  • Present (presente)
  • Imperfect (pretérito imperfecto)
  • Preterite (pretérito indefinido)
  • Future (futuro simple or futuro imperfecto)
  • Simple conditional (condicional simple or pospretérito)
  • Present perfect (pretérito perfecto)

What are the 3 ending verbs in Spanish? ›

In Spanish, verbs are divided into three categories for all tenses: -ar verbs, -er verbs, and -ir verbs. The -ar, -er, and -ir refer to the unconjugated infinitive ending of the verb.

What is the number 1 most used word? ›

'The' tops the league tables of most frequently used words in English, accounting for 5% of every 100 words used. “'The' really is miles above everything else,” says Jonathan Culpeper, professor of linguistics at Lancaster University. But why is this?

What is the longest word in Spanish? ›

Esternocleidooccipitomastoideos (31 letters) is the plural of the noun esternocleidooccipitomastoideo, which is the sternocleidomastoid, a muscle in the human neck. The word has a 22-letter synonym: esternocleidomastoideo, which is shorter because it omits the Latin prefix occipito- ('occipital').

How do you say okay in Spain? ›

How to say OK in Spanish: Don't Say VALE or OK, say THIS instead (10 Alternatives)
  1. Va (Ok)
  2. Suena bien (Sounds good)
  3. De acuerdo (I agree)
  4. Claro o claro que sí (Of course)
  5. Sale or dale (Okay)
  6. Arre (Okay)
  7. Cuenta con ello (Count on it)
  8. Simón (Okay, Yes, Sure)

What are the 3 basic aspects to learn Spanish? ›

There are four core skills involved in language learning: listening, speaking, reading and writing—and they're the same for any language, including your native tongue.

What is the key to learn Spanish? ›

The key to learning conversational Spanish is to practice. You should combine listening to native speakers with some key vocabulary in the form of some basic Spanish words. Add a couple of simple Spanish sentences and a few clever language hacks and you have a magic recipe for basic Spanish conversation.

What is the easiest version of Spanish to learn? ›

There isn't one version of Spanish that is easier or harder to learn than another. While the accents and dialects vary from place to place, you can still understand most of what people are saying, regardless of which Spanish you've learnt.

What are 3 formal greetings in Spanish? ›

Initial Greetings
SpanishEnglish equivalentFormality
Buenos díasGood morningSlightly formal
Buenas tardesGood afternoonSlightly formal
Buenas nochesGood night/Good eveningSlightly formal
Muy buenas/buenasShort version of all the aboveInformal
1 more row

How do you answer Como estas? ›

When someone asks you ¿Cómo estás? If you feel alright, you say estoy bien; you could also say, estoy muy bien, to give more emphasis, which means “very good” or “very well.” You can also add one extra word, gracias, meaning “thanks”, and estoy bien, gracias; it means “I'm fine, thank you.” 2.

What are 5 Spanish idioms? ›

18 Funniest Spanish Idioms and Expressions
  • Cuatro gatos. Literal Meaning: four cats. ...
  • No hay tu tía. Literal Meaning: there isn't your aunt. ...
  • Estar de mala leche. Literal Meaning: to be of bad milk. ...
  • No estar católico. ...
  • Sacar las castañas del fuego. ...
  • Montar un pollo. ...
  • Me piro vampiro. ...
  • Matar la gallina de los huevos de oro.
20 Sept 2019

What are the 3 main verbs in Spanish? ›

First things first: there are three classes of Spanish verbs: -ar verbs, -er verbs, and -ir verbs. These are the infinitive verb endings (or dictionary form of the verb).

What are the 3 Spanish moods? ›

There are three moods in Spanish: indicative, subjunctive, and imperative. All of these moods, except the imperative, may be conjugated in different tenses. Each of these moods has a different function.

What are the 14 Spanish verb tenses? ›

In total, there are 14 (7 simple and 7 compound): Present, Imperfect, Preterite, Future, Conditional, Present Perfect, Pluperfect, Preterit Perfect, Future Perfect, Conditional Perfect, Present Subjunctive, Imperfect Subjunctive, Present Perfect Subjunctive, and Pluperfect Subjunctive.

What are the 25 main verbs? ›

25 Most Common Verbs
  • be.
  • have.
  • do.
  • say.
  • get.
  • make.
  • go.
  • know.

How many verbs do you need to know to be fluent in Spanish? ›

Linguists do not agree on what it means to be fluent. If you think about native-level fluency, you'll need to master between 20,000 and 40,000 words, and as you can see the margin is quite large. If you want to have a basic conversation, experts say that you'll just need around 3,000 words.

How do you say 100 words in Spanish? ›

Notice that 100 is cien, but in every other number that follows it changes to ciento and it's followed by the next number. For example, 101 is ciento uno and 187 would be ciento ochenta y siete. Unlike in English, hundreds are written in one word.

What is the most common Spanish word? ›

que that

What are 3 words that express disagreement in Spanish? ›

Don't Just Say No: 10 Polite Ways to Express Disagreement in...
  • Creo que no → I don't think so. ...
  • La verdad es que no → Truthfully, no. ...
  • No puedo → I can't. ...
  • No estoy de acuerdo → I don't agree. ...
  • Me parece que no → It doesn't look like it. ...
  • No tiene sentido → It doesn't make sense.

What are the 4 types of vocabulary? ›

Educators often consider four types of vocabulary: listening, speaking, reading, and writing. Listening vocabulary refers to the words we need to know to understand what we hear.

How can I improve my vocabulary in 7 days? ›

SEVEN DAYS
  1. Pick a topic of interest & find a related article/blog.
  2. Read the article/blog & circle 10 words.
  3. Write the definitions & the sentences from the article/blog.
  4. Change out the words but keep the same sentence.
  5. Find 1 image to match each word from the article/blog.
  6. Make sentences about the images using the vocab word.

How can I learn vocabulary naturally? ›

Incidental Vocabulary Learning

Most students acquire vocabulary incidentally through indirect exposure to words at home and at school—by listening and talking, by listening to books read aloud to them, and by reading widely on their own.

What should I learn first in Spanish? ›

Although there is no set order to learning a language, it does make sense to learn verb conjugations as a priority. These help you to communicate quickly, and give you the tools to create phrases of your own. The good news is that if you are learning phrases, you will have already met many of the verb conjugations.

How many minutes a day should I practice Spanish? ›

Aim to spend at least an hour a day practicing basic conversation skills. Once you've reached a intermediate level, you can start studying grammar and vocabulary for two or three hours a day. If you're already proficient in Spanish and just want to keep your skills sharp, an hour of practice each day should suffice.

How can I learn Spanish quickly for free? ›

Here are a couple popular ways to learn Spanish for free:
  1. Online courses, software, and apps.
  2. Language exchange/tandem learning with a native speaker.
  3. Media resources like podcasts, TV shows and movies.
  4. Library books and public resources.
  5. Immersion learning.

What are the 100 most common words? ›

The 100 most common words in English
1. the21. at61. some
2. of22. be62. her
3. and23. this63. would
4. a24. have64. make
5. to25. from65. like
15 more rows

What are the 5 most important Spanish verbs? ›

The top 12 most common Spanish verbs you'll want to learn are:
  • Hacer = To do or make.
  • Ir = To go.
  • Venir = To come.
  • Decir = To say or tell.
  • Poder = To be able.
  • Dar = To give.
  • Ver = To see.
  • Saber = To know.

What is the most used word 2022? ›

10 trending English words of 2022 with meaning
  • NOMOPHOBIA. ...
  • SHARENT. ...
  • FITSPIRATION. ...
  • STAN. ...
  • AWESOMESAUCE. ...
  • LOW-KEY. ...
  • SITUATIONSHIP. ...
  • METAVERSE. Meaning: A virtual reality space in which users can interact with a computer-generated environment and other users.
6 Jul 2022

Is OK the most used word? ›

Although it's become the most spoken word on the planet, it's kind of a strange word. Sometimes it's spelled out—“okay”—and sometimes just two letters are used: “OK.” Other times, periods separate the two letters: “O.K.” I'm a syntactician, which means that I'm someone who looks at the structure of language.

What is the world's biggest word? ›

pneumonoultramicroscopicsilicovolcanoconiosis

Appearing in the Oxford English Dictionary, this 45-letter word for a disease is the longest English word that is defined in a major dictionary. It's a technical word referring to the lung disease more commonly known as silicosis.

Does What 3 words work in Spain? ›

Languages available for what3words Voice:

English (Australia) English (UK) Spanish (Spain) Spanish (Latin America)

What are the Super 7 Spanish verbs? ›

Teaching the Super 7 Verbs in Spanish
  • 1 está (is at a place / is feeling)
  • 2 hay (there is / there are)
  • 3 tiene (has)
  • 4 es (is)
  • 5 le gusta (likes / is pleasing to)
  • 6 va (goes / is going)
  • 7 quiere (wants)
7 Feb 2019

What word has all 5 vowels in Spanish? ›

According to a Mexican friend of mine, murciélago (bat) is the only Spanish word with all five vowels. In English, we have facetiously, which has all 5½ vowels (y is the half) in alphabetical order. I also like the words vacuum and aardvark for the unusual double vowels.

What is the easiest word to learn in Spanish? ›

13 Very Common Spanish Words
  • Hola – hello.
  • Adiós – goodbye.
  • Por favor – please.
  • Gracias – thank you.
  • Lo siento – sorry.
  • Salud – bless you (after someone sneezes)
  • Sí – yes.
  • No – no.
14 Jun 2022

Videos

1. 20 Spanish Words for Everyday Life - Basic Vocabulary #1
(Learn Spanish with SpanishPod101.com)
2. 500 Slightly Long Spanish Phrases to Speak Fluently (Intermediate Level)
(Kendra's Language School)
3. The secrets of learning a new language | Lýdia Machová
(TED)
4. Learn Spanish WHILE SLEEPING: Beginner Lessons
(Real World Spanish Lessons)
5. 300 Words Every Spanish Beginner Must Know
(Learn Spanish with SpanishPod101.com)
6. Learn Spanish \\ 100 Common Words In Context Improve Spanish Listening // Audio English/Spanish
(Eko Languages)
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