Read queries on replicas - Azure SQL Database & SQL Managed Instance (2023)

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Applies to: Read queries on replicas - Azure SQL Database & SQL Managed Instance (1) Azure SQL Database Read queries on replicas - Azure SQL Database & SQL Managed Instance (2) Azure SQL Managed Instance

As part of High Availability architecture, each single database, elastic pool database, and managed instance in the Premium and Business Critical service tier is automatically provisioned with a primary read-write replica and one or more secondary read-only replicas. Azure SQL Managed Instance supports one secondary read-only replica. The secondary replicas are provisioned with the same compute size as the primary replica. The read scale-out feature allows you to offload read-only workloads using the compute capacity of one of the read-only replicas, instead of running them on the read-write replica. This way, some read-only workloads can be isolated from the read-write workloads, and will not affect their performance. The feature is intended for the applications that include logically separated read-only workloads, such as analytics. In the Premium and Business Critical service tiers, applications could gain performance benefits using this additional capacity at no extra cost.

The read scale-out feature is also available in the Hyperscale service tier when at least one secondary replica is added. Hyperscale secondary named replicas provide independent scaling, access isolation, workload isolation, support for a variety of read scale-out scenarios, and other benefits. Multiple secondary HA replicas can be used for load-balancing read-only workloads that require more resources than available on one secondary HA replica.

The High Availability architecture of Basic, Standard, and General Purpose service tiers does not include any replicas. The read scale-out feature is not available in these service tiers. However, when using Azure SQL Database, geo-replicas can provide similar functionality in these service tiers. When using Azure SQL Managed Instance and failover groups, the failover group read-only listener can provide similar functionality respectively.

The following diagram illustrates the feature for Premium and Business Critical databases and managed instances.

Read queries on replicas - Azure SQL Database & SQL Managed Instance (3)

The read scale-out feature is enabled by default on new Premium, Business Critical, and Hyperscale databases.

Note

Read scale-out is always enabled in the Business Critical service tier of SQL Managed Instance, and for Hyperscale databases with at least one secondary replica.

If your SQL connection string is configured with ApplicationIntent=ReadOnly, the application will be redirected to a read-only replica of that database or managed instance. For information on how to use the ApplicationIntent property, see Specifying Application Intent.

For Azure SQL Database only, if you wish to ensure that the application connects to the primary replica regardless of the ApplicationIntent setting in the SQL connection string, you must explicitly disable read scale-out when creating the database or when altering its configuration. For example, if you upgrade your database from Standard or General Purpose tier to Premium or Business Critical and want to make sure all your connections continue to go to the primary replica, disable read scale-out. For details on how to disable it, see Enable and disable read scale-out.

Note

Query Store and SQL Profiler features are not supported on read-only replicas.

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Data consistency

Data changes made on the primary replica are persisted on read-only replicas synchronously or asynchronously depending on replica type. However, for all replica types, reads from a read-only replica are always asynchronous with respect to the primary. Within a session connected to a read-only replica, reads are always transactionally consistent. Because data propagation latency is variable, different replicas can return data at slightly different points in time relative to the primary and each other. If a read-only replica becomes unavailable and a session reconnects, it may connect to a replica that is at a different point in time than the original replica. Likewise, if an application changes data using a read-write session on the primary and immediately reads it using a read-only session on a read-only replica, it is possible that the latest changes will not be immediately visible.

Typical data propagation latency between the primary replica and read-only replicas varies in the range from tens of milliseconds to single-digit seconds. However, there is no fixed upper bound on data propagation latency. Conditions such as high resource utilization on the replica can increase latency substantially. Applications that require guaranteed data consistency across sessions, or require committed data to be readable immediately should use the primary replica.

Note

To monitor data propagation latency, see Monitoring and troubleshooting read-only replica.

Connect to a read-only replica

When you enable read scale-out for a database, the ApplicationIntent option in the connection string provided by the client dictates whether the connection is routed to the write replica or to a read-only replica. Specifically, if the ApplicationIntent value is ReadWrite (the default value), the connection will be directed to the read-write replica. This is identical to the behavior when ApplicationIntent is not included in the connection string. If the ApplicationIntent value is ReadOnly, the connection is routed to a read-only replica.

For example, the following connection string connects the client to a read-only replica (replacing the items in the angle brackets with the correct values for your environment and dropping the angle brackets):

Server=tcp:<server>.database.windows.net;Database=<mydatabase>;ApplicationIntent=ReadOnly;User ID=<myLogin>;Password=<myPassword>;Trusted_Connection=False; Encrypt=True;

To connect to a read-only replica using SQL Server Management Studio (SSMS), select Options

Read queries on replicas - Azure SQL Database & SQL Managed Instance (4)

Select Additional Connection Parameters and enter ApplicationIntent=ReadOnly and then select Connect

Read queries on replicas - Azure SQL Database & SQL Managed Instance (5)

Either of the following connection strings connects the client to a read-write replica (replacing the items in the angle brackets with the correct values for your environment and dropping the angle brackets):

Server=tcp:<server>.database.windows.net;Database=<mydatabase>;ApplicationIntent=ReadWrite;User ID=<myLogin>;Password=<myPassword>;Trusted_Connection=False; Encrypt=True;Server=tcp:<server>.database.windows.net;Database=<mydatabase>;User ID=<myLogin>;Password=<myPassword>;Trusted_Connection=False; Encrypt=True;

Verify that a connection is to a read-only replica

You can verify whether you are connected to a read-only replica by running the following query in the context of your database. It will return READ_ONLY when you are connected to a read-only replica.

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SELECT DATABASEPROPERTYEX(DB_NAME(), 'Updateability');

Note

In Premium and Business Critical service tiers, only one of the read-only replicas is accessible at any given time. Hyperscale supports multiple read-only replicas.

Monitoring and troubleshooting read-only replicas

When connected to a read-only replica, Dynamic Management Views (DMVs) reflect the state of the replica, and can be queried for monitoring and troubleshooting purposes. The database engine provides multiple views to expose a wide variety of monitoring data.

The following views are commonly used for replica monitoring and troubleshooting:

NamePurpose
sys.dm_db_resource_statsProvides resource utilization metrics for the last hour, including CPU, data IO, and log write utilization relative to service objective limits.
sys.dm_os_wait_statsProvides aggregate wait statistics for the database engine instance.
sys.dm_database_replica_statesProvides replica health state and synchronization statistics. Redo queue size and redo rate serve as indicators of data propagation latency on the read-only replica.
sys.dm_os_performance_countersProvides database engine performance counters.
sys.dm_exec_query_statsProvides per-query execution statistics such as number of executions, CPU time used, etc.
sys.dm_exec_query_plan()Provides cached query plans.
sys.dm_exec_sql_text()Provides query text for a cached query plan.
sys.dm_exec_query_profilesProvides real time query progress while queries are in execution.
sys.dm_exec_query_plan_stats()Provides the last known actual execution plan including runtime statistics for a query.
sys.dm_io_virtual_file_stats()Provides storage IOPS, throughput, and latency statistics for all database files.

Note

The sys.resource_stats and sys.elastic_pool_resource_stats DMVs in the logical master database return resource utilization data of the primary replica.

Monitoring read-only replicas with Extended Events

An extended event session cannot be created when connected to a read-only replica. However, in Azure SQL Database, the definitions of database-scoped Extended Event sessions created and altered on the primary replica replicate to read-only replicas, including geo-replicas, and capture events on read-only replicas.

An extended event session on a read-only replica that is based on a session definition from the primary replica can be started and stopped independently of the primary replica. When an extended event session is dropped on the primary replica, it is also dropped on all read-only replicas.

Transaction isolation level on read-only replicas

Transactions on read-only replicas always use the snapshot transaction isolation level, regardless of transaction isolation level of the session, and regardless of any query hints. Snapshot isolation uses row versioning to avoid blocking scenarios where readers block writers.

In rare cases, if a snapshot isolation transaction accesses object metadata that has been modified in another concurrent transaction, it may receive error 3961, "Snapshot isolation transaction failed in database '%.*ls' because the object accessed by the statement has been modified by a DDL statement in another concurrent transaction since the start of this transaction. It is disallowed because the metadata is not versioned. A concurrent update to metadata can lead to inconsistency if mixed with snapshot isolation."

Long-running queries on read-only replicas

Queries running on read-only replicas need to access metadata for the objects referenced in the query (tables, indexes, statistics, etc.) In rare cases, if object metadata is modified on the primary replica while a query holds a lock on the same object on the read-only replica, the query can block the process that applies changes from the primary replica to the read-only replica. If such a query were to run for a long time, it would cause the read-only replica to be significantly out of sync with the primary replica. For replicas that are potential failover targets (secondary replicas in Premium and Business Critical service tiers, Hyperscale HA replicas, and all geo-replicas), this would also delay database recovery if a failover were to occur, causing longer than expected downtime.

If a long-running query on a read-only replica directly or indirectly causes this kind of blocking, it may be automatically terminated to avoid excessive data latency and potential database availability impact. The session will receive error 1219, "Your session has been disconnected because of a high priority DDL operation", or error 3947, "The transaction was aborted because the secondary compute failed to catch up redo. Retry the transaction."

Note

If you receive error 3961, 1219, or 3947 when running queries against a read-only replica, retry the query. Alternatively, avoid operations that modify object metadata (schema changes, index maintenance, statistics updates, etc.) on the primary replica while long-running queries execute on secondary replicas.

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Tip

In Premium and Business Critical service tiers, when connected to a read-only replica, the redo_queue_size and redo_rate columns in the sys.dm_database_replica_states DMV may be used to monitor data synchronization process, serving as indicators of data propagation latency on the read-only replica.

Enable and disable read scale-out for SQL Database

For SQL Managed Instance, read-scale out is automatically enabled on the Business Critical service tier, and is not available in the General Purpose service tier. Disabling and reenabling read scale-out is not possible.

For SQL Database, read scale-out is enabled by default on Premium, Business Critical, and Hyperscale service tiers. Read scale-out cannot be enabled in Basic, Standard, or General Purpose service tiers. Read scale-out is automatically disabled on Hyperscale databases configured with zero secondary replicas.

For single and pooled databases in Azure SQL Database, you can disable and re-enable read scale-out in the Premium or Business Critical service tiers by using the Azure portal, and Azure PowerShell. These options are not available for SQL Managed Instance as read-scale out cannot be disabled.

Note

For single databases and elastic pool databases, the ability to disable read scale-out is provided for backward compatibility. Read scale-out cannot be disabled on Business Critical managed instances.

Azure portal

For Azure SQL Database, you can manage the read scale-out setting on the Configure database blade. Using the Azure portal to enable or disable read scale-out is not available for Azure SQL Managed Instance.

PowerShell

Important

The PowerShell Azure Resource Manager module is still supported, but all future development is for the Az.Sql module. The Azure Resource Manager module will continue to receive bug fixes until at least December 2020. The arguments for the commands in the Az module and in the Azure Resource Manager modules are substantially identical. For more information about their compatibility, see Introducing the new Azure PowerShell Az module.

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Managing read scale-out in Azure PowerShell requires the December 2016 Azure PowerShell release or newer. For the newest PowerShell release, see Azure PowerShell.

In Azure SQL Database, you can disable or re-enable read scale-out in Azure PowerShell by invoking the Set-AzSqlDatabase cmdlet and passing in the desired value (Enabled or Disabled) for the -ReadScale parameter. Disabling read scale-out for SQL Managed Instance is not available.

To disable read scale-out on an existing database (replacing the items in the angle brackets with the correct values for your environment and dropping the angle brackets):

Set-AzSqlDatabase -ResourceGroupName <resourceGroupName> -ServerName <serverName> -DatabaseName <databaseName> -ReadScale Disabled

To disable read scale-out on a new database (replacing the items in the angle brackets with the correct values for your environment and dropping the angle brackets):

New-AzSqlDatabase -ResourceGroupName <resourceGroupName> -ServerName <serverName> -DatabaseName <databaseName> -ReadScale Disabled -Edition Premium

To re-enable read scale-out on an existing database (replacing the items in the angle brackets with the correct values for your environment and dropping the angle brackets):

Set-AzSqlDatabase -ResourceGroupName <resourceGroupName> -ServerName <serverName> -DatabaseName <databaseName> -ReadScale Enabled

REST API

To create a database with read scale-out disabled, or to change the setting for an existing database, use the following method with the readScale property set to Enabled or Disabled, as in the following sample request.

Method: PUTURL: https://management.azure.com/subscriptions/{SubscriptionId}/resourceGroups/{GroupName}/providers/Microsoft.Sql/servers/{ServerName}/databases/{DatabaseName}?api-version= 2014-04-01-previewBody: { "properties": { "readScale":"Disabled" }}

For more information, see Databases - Create or update.

Using the tempdb database on a read-only replica

The tempdb database on the primary replica is not replicated to the read-only replicas. Each replica has its own tempdb database that is created when the replica is created. This ensures that tempdb is updateable and can be modified during your query execution. If your read-only workload depends on using tempdb objects, you should create these objects as part of the same workload, while connected to a read-only replica.

Using read scale-out with geo-replicated databases

Geo-replicated secondary databases have the same High Availability architecture as primary databases. If you're connecting to the geo-replicated secondary database with read scale-out enabled, your sessions with ApplicationIntent=ReadOnly will be routed to one of the high availability replicas in the same way they are routed on the primary writeable database. The sessions without ApplicationIntent=ReadOnly will be routed to the primary replica of the geo-replicated secondary, which is also read-only.

In this fashion, creating a geo-replica can provide multiple additional read-only replicas for a read-write primary database. Each additional geo-replica provides another set of read-only replicas. Geo-replicas can be created in any Azure region, including the region of the primary database.

Note

There is no automatic round-robin or any other load-balanced routing between the replicas of a geo-replicated secondary database, with the exception of a Hyperscale geo-replica with more than one HA replica. In that case, sessions with read-only intent are distributed over all HA replicas of a geo-replica.

Feature support on read-only replicas

A list of the behavior of some features on read-only replicas is below:

  • Auditing on read-only replicas is automatically enabled. For further details about the hierarchy of the storage folders, naming conventions, and log format, see SQL Database Audit Log Format.
  • Query Performance Insight relies on data from the Query Store, which currently does not track activity on the read-only replica. Query Performance Insight will not show queries which execute on the read-only replica.
  • Automatic tuning relies on the Query Store, as detailed in the Automatic tuning paper. Automatic tuning only works for workloads running on the primary replica.

Next steps

  • For information about SQL Database Hyperscale offering, see Hyperscale service tier.

FAQs

Does Azure SQL managed instance support cross database query? ›

Azure SQL Database does not support cross-database and cross-instance queries using three-part or four-part names, so depending on your needs, Make sure the source database will be an Azure SQL Managed Instance And The target database will be an Azure SQL Database.

What is difference between Azure SQL Database and Azure SQL Managed Instance? ›

Azure SQL is a cloud-based relational database service that is based on the Microsoft SQL Server database engine, while managed instance is a fully managed, cloud-based data platform that is also based on the Microsoft SQL Server database engine.

Does Azure SQL Managed Instance support geo-replication? ›

Active geo-replication is not supported by Azure SQL Managed Instance.

What is read-only replica SQL Server? ›

A readable secondary replica allows read-only access to all its secondary databases. However, readable secondary databases are not set to read-only. They are dynamic. A given secondary database changes as changes on the corresponding primary database are applied to the secondary database.

What feature is not available with Azure SQL Database managed instance? ›

Yes, for Azure Data Lake Storage (ADLS) and Azure Blob Storage as data source. See Data Virtualization with Azure SQL Managed Instance for more details. Only Full Recovery that guarantees high availability is supported. Simple and Bulk Logged recovery models are not available.

What type of replication is supported for Azure SQL Database? ›

The distribution database and the replication agents cannot be placed on a database in Azure SQL Database. Snapshot and one-way transactional replication are supported. Peer-to-peer transactional replication and merge replication are not supported.

Why choose Azure SQL managed instance? ›

Azure SQL Managed Instance is designed for customers looking to migrate a large number of apps from an on-premises or IaaS, self-built, or ISV provided environment to a fully managed PaaS cloud environment, with as low a migration effort as possible.

How many databases in Azure SQL managed instance? ›

The limit of 100 databases per SQL Managed Instance is a hard limit that cannot be changed.

How do I access Azure SQL managed instance? ›

Connect with SSMS
  1. On the on-premises client computer, open SQL Server Management Studio.
  2. In the Connect to Server dialog box, enter the fully qualified host name for your managed instance in the Server name box.
  3. Select SQL Server Authentication, provide your username and password, and then select Connect.
Aug 30, 2022

When using an Azure SQL Database managed instance What is the simplest way to implement backups? ›

The simplest way to do so is to create a backup of your on-premises database, move it to Azure Blob storage, and restore the database on managed instance using a standard RESTORE DATABASE …. FROM URL T-SQL statement.

What is the difference between geo replication and failover group? ›

Geo Replication is used for only Azure SQL Databases. Failover groups allow you to manage replication and failover of a group of databases on a server or all databases to another region. It provides automatic failover features. Failover groups support only one secondary server.

How do I enable geo replication in Azure SQL Database? ›

In the Azure portal, browse to the database that you want to set up for geo-replication. On the SQL Database page, select your database, scroll to Data management, select Replicas, and then select Create replica.

What are two benefits of using Read replicas? ›

Amazon RDS Read Replicas provide enhanced performance and durability for Amazon RDS database (DB) instances. They make it easy to elastically scale out beyond the capacity constraints of a single DB instance for read-heavy database workloads.

How many read replicas are available for each DB Instance? ›

You can create up to 15 read replicas from one DB instance within the same Region. For replication to operate effectively, each read replica should have the same amount of compute and storage resources as the source DB instance. If you scale the source DB instance, also scale the read replicas.

What is the difference between multi-AZ and Read replica? ›

In Multi-AZ, the data from the primary instance is replicated to a secondary instance. The secondary instance is located in another Availability zone. In Read Replica, a snapshot is taken of the primary database. Read replicas are available in Amazon RDS for MySQL, MariaDB, and PostgreSQL.

Which statements are not supported in Azure SQL Database? ›

T-SQL statements related to availability groups are not supported by SQL Database, and the dynamic management views related to Always On Availability Groups are also not supported.

Which of the following SQL Azure features can protect the Azure SQL Database Azure managed instance and Azure data warehouse against cyber threats? ›

Transparent data encryption (TDE) for SQL Database, SQL Managed Instance, and Azure Synapse Analytics adds a layer of security to help protect data at rest from unauthorized or offline access to raw files or backups.

Which type of service as the Azure SQL managed instance? ›

Part of the Azure SQL family, SQL Managed Instance is an intelligent cloud database service combining the broadest SQL Server engine compatibility (back to SQL Server 2008) with the benefits of a fully managed, up-to-date platform as a service.

How many replicas are maintained for each SQL Azure database? ›

How many replicas are maintained by Azure SQL Database? Three, Azure SQL maintains three replicas as primary and secondary replicas. If the primary replica goes down, the secondary replica is promoted as primary.

How many types of replication are there in Azure? ›

Microsoft Azure supports 4 different replication services, locally-redundant storage, zone-redundant storage, geo-redundant storage and read-access geo-redundant storage (also known as LRS, ZRS, GRS and RA-GRS respectively.)

What are the different types of replication in SQL? ›

There are four MS SQL Server replication types: snapshot replication, transactional replication, peer-to-peer replication and merge replication.

Is Azure SQL managed instance Iaas or PaaS? ›

As per the document from Microsoft at https://docs.microsoft.com/en-us/learn/modules/azure-database-fundamentals/azure-sql-managed-instance, the Azure SQL database and Azure SQL Managed Instance are PaaS.

Can we stop Azure SQL managed instance? ›

Enable the ability to pause Azure SQL DB and Azure SQL Managed Instance like what is available in Azure SQL DW or VM. Importing/exporting the data is not a viable option for most dev/test environments that need to be started/stopped quickly and easily.

How many replicas are maintained for each SQL Azure DB for disaster recovery? ›

Geo Replication will create a continuous copy of your database in one or more secondary region(s) (up to 4 secondary replicas). In event of disaster, you can simply failover to one of the secondary region and bring you database back online. You can also configure failover group to recover the databases automatically.

Can one instance have multiple databases? ›

There are authorities at instance level. If the users with a sysadm authority is allowed to access all databases, then multiple databases per instance is OK. Instead, if the security of the databases is different, then separate the databases.

Can you have multiple databases in Azure SQL Database? ›

You can create multiple pools on a server, but you can't add databases from different servers into the same pool.

How do I access SQL managed instance from Azure data Factory? ›

Go to the Manage tab and then go to the Managed private endpoints section. Select + New under Linked Service. Select the Azure SQL Database Managed Instance tile from the list and select Continue.

How do I connect SQL Management Studio to Azure database? ›

Steps to Connect SSMS to SQL Azure
  1. Authenticate to the Azure Portal.
  2. Click on SQL Databases.
  3. Click on Servers.
  4. Click on the name of the Server you wish to connect to…
  5. Click on Configure…
  6. Open SQL Management Studio and connect to Database services (usually comes up by default)
  7. Hit the Connect button.
Sep 25, 2013

How do I open an Azure database in SQL Server Management Studio? ›

Prerequisites
  1. SQL Server Management Studio (SSMS).
  2. A database in Azure SQL Database. You can use one of these quickstarts to create and then configure a database in Azure SQL Database: Action. SQL Database. SQL Managed Instance. SQL Server on Azure VM. Create. Portal. Portal. Portal. CLI. CLI. PowerShell. PowerShell. PowerShell.
Aug 30, 2022

How do I migrate Azure SQL Database to Azure SQL managed instance? ›

Migrate On-premises SQL Server Database to an Azure SQL Managed Instance with minimal downtime
  1. 1 – Create a storage account to upload backups. ...
  2. 2 – Install Azure Data Studio and add SQL Migration extension. ...
  3. 3 – Launch the “Migrate to Azure SQL” wizard in Azure Data Studio.
Jun 2, 2022

How do you create a linked server from Azure SQL managed instance to SQL Server Azure VM? ›

To do that, open SQL Server Management Studio and connect to the local instance. In object explorer, expand Server Objects > Linked Servers and right click and select "New Linked Server." Now click on Security. On this page, we can configure the security options.

How do you set up Azure Data Sync between Azure SQL databases and on-premises SQL Server? ›

Create sync group
  1. Go to the Azure portal to find your database in SQL Database. ...
  2. Select the database you want to use as the hub database for Data Sync. ...
  3. On the SQL database menu for the selected database, select Sync to other databases.
  4. On the Sync to other databases page, select New Sync Group.
Aug 31, 2022

Is redundancy the same as failover? ›

Redundancy is having extra components available in the case a component fails. Failover is the mechanism, be it automatic or manual, for bringing up a contingent operational plan. Availability is a characteristic of a system that describes uptime, typically expressed as a percentage (e.g. 99.99%)

Is failover the same as High Availability? ›

A part of high availability is failover which we define as the ability for client connections to migrate from one server to another in event of server failure so client applications can continue to operate. JBoss Messaging provides high availability by replicating servers in pairs.

What is the difference between a failback and failover cluster? ›

The failover operation is the process of switching production to a backup facility (normally your recovery site). A failback operation is the process of returning production to its original location after a disaster or a scheduled maintenance period.

Why would you want to configure geo-replication for an Azure SQL Database? ›

Geo-Replication is an Azure SQL database feature that allows you to create a readable secondary database in the same region or cross-region. We can failover to the secondary database in case of an outage for a long time on the primary database server.

What is geo redundancy in Azure? ›

Geo-redundant storage (GRS) copies your data synchronously three times within a single physical location in the primary region using LRS. It then copies your data asynchronously to a single physical location in a secondary region that is hundreds of miles away from the primary region.

What are the options for managed SQL databases on Azure? ›

Azure offers a choice of fully managed relational, NoSQL, and in-memory databases, spanning proprietary and open-source engines, to fit the needs of modern app developers. Infrastructure management—including scalability, availability, and security—is automated, saving you time and money.

Which SQL Server features are not supported in Azure SQL Database? ›

Specifically, Azure SQL Edge doesn't support SQL Server components like Analysis Services, Reporting Services, Integration Services, Master Data Services, Machine Learning Services (In-Database), and Machine Learning Server (standalone).

Can we use cross apply in SQL Server? ›

SQL Server APPLY operator comes in two variations: CROSS APPLY and OUTER APPLY: The CROSS APPLY operator returns only those rows from the left table expression (in its final output) if it matches with the right table expression.

Why use Azure SQL managed instance? ›

SQL Managed Instance provides additional security isolation from other tenants on the Azure platform. Security isolation includes: Native virtual network implementation and connectivity to your on-premises environment using Azure ExpressRoute or VPN Gateway.

When using an Azure SQL Database Managed Instance What is the simplest way to implement backups? ›

The simplest way to do so is to create a backup of your on-premises database, move it to Azure Blob storage, and restore the database on managed instance using a standard RESTORE DATABASE …. FROM URL T-SQL statement.

How do I connect to a SQL managed instance in Azure? ›

Connect with SSMS
  1. On the on-premises client computer, open SQL Server Management Studio.
  2. In the Connect to Server dialog box, enter the fully qualified host name for your managed instance in the Server name box.
  3. Select SQL Server Authentication, provide your username and password, and then select Connect.
Aug 30, 2022

What is the limitations of Azure SQL Database? ›

Limited to 24 GB/vCore (96 - 1,920 GB) and currently available instance storage size. Add more vCores to get more tempdb space. Log file size is limited to 120 GB. Up to currently available instance storage size.

Can you use SQL Server Management Studio with Azure SQL Database? ›

Let's start with the login into Azure Portal from the Dashboard. Click on SQL databases tab from the Azure Services. Once you select the database, you can see server information along with all other pieces of information. Copy the server name and then open SQL Server Management Studio.

Can we use T-SQL to query SQL Azure? ›

Azure Synapse SQL is a big data analytic service that enables you to query and analyze your data using the T-SQL language. You can use standard ANSI-compliant dialect of SQL language used on SQL Server and Azure SQL Database for data analysis.

What is difference between cross join and cross apply? ›

In simple terms, a join relies on self-sufficient sets of data, i.e. sets should not depend on each other. On the other hand, CROSS APPLY is only based on one predefined set and can be used with another separately created set. A worked example should help with understanding this difference.

What is the purpose of cross apply in SQL Server? ›

The CROSS APPLY operator is semantically similar to INNER JOIN. It retrieves all the records from the table where there are corresponding matching rows in the output returned by the table valued function.

What is the use of %% in SQL? ›

The percent sign (%) represents zero, one, or multiple characters. The underscore sign (_) represents one, single character.

How many databases are in Azure SQL managed instance? ›

The limit of 100 databases per SQL Managed Instance is a hard limit that cannot be changed.

How do I restore on premise SQL Database to Azure SQL managed instance? ›

Open SSMS and connect to your managed instance. In Object Explorer, right-click the Databases folder of your managed instance, and then select Restore Database to open the restore wizard.

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