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Key Verbs and Structures for GCSE

Regular verbs (IR)

(Full verb formation)

(Regular verb infinitives)

(Infinitive) Vivir – to live

Me Te Se Nos Os Se

Foundation verbs Ar Aconsejar – to advise Apagar – to turn off Arreglar – to tidy Bailar – to dance Bajar – to go down Cambiar – to change Caminar – to walk Cenar – to dine Comprar – to buy Contestar – to answer Dejar – to leave Enseñar – to teach / show Entrar – to enter Enviar – to send Escuchar – to listen to Esperar – to hope / wait Estudiar – to study Evitar – to avoid Explicar – to explain Fumar – to smoke Ganar – to win / earn Gastar – to spend £ Lavar – to wash Llamar – to call Limpiar – to clean Llegar – to arrive Llenar – to fill Llevar – to wear / carry Nadar – to swim Necesitar – to need Obligar – to force Pasar – to spend time / pass Pagar – to pay

Higher verbs Pasear – to walk Practicar – to practise Preguntar – to ask Preparar – to prepare Regresar – to return Sacar – to take out Terminar – to finish Tocar – to play (instrument) Tomar – to take / have (food) Trabajar – to work Tratar de – to try to Utilizar – to use Viajar – to travel Visitar – to visit Er Aprender – to learn Beber – to drink Coger – catch Comer – eat Correr – to run Creer – to believe Deber – to have to Vender – to sell Ver – to watch / see Ir Abrir – to open Cubrir – to cover Decidir – to decide Escribir – to write Recibir – to receive Subir – to go up

Vivo – I live Vives – you live Vive – he/she/it lives Vivimos – we live Vivís – you live (pl) Viven – they live

(Radical Change verbs (Present tense only))

(Irregular in 1st person only (Present tense)) Conducir – to drive Conocer – to know Decir – to say / tell Estar – to be (state / position) Hacer – to do / make Oír – to hear Poner – to put / set Salir – to go out Saber – to know (fact) Tener – to have Traer – to bring Venir – to come

Ir – to go

Ser – to be

voy – I go vas – you go Va – he/she/it goes Vamos – we go Vais – you go Van – they go

Soy – I am Eres – you are Es – he/she/it is Somos – we are Sois – you are Son – they are

Regular verbs (AR)

Regular Verbs (ER)

(infinitive) Hablar – to speak

(Infinitive) Comer – to eat

Hablo – I speak Hablas – you speak Habla – he/she/it speaks Hablamos – we speak Habláis – you speak (pl) Hablan – they speak

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Como – I eat Comes – you eat Come – he/she/it eats Comemos – we eat Coméis – you eat (pl) Comen – they eat

Cerrar (ie) – to close Despertarse (ie) – to wake up Divertirse (ie) – to enjoy o.s Empezar (ie) – to begin Encender (ie) – to light Herirse (ie) – to get injured Pensar (ie) – to think Perder (ie) – to lose Preferir (ie) – to prefer Querer (ie) – to want Sentirse (ie) – to feel

Acordarse (ue) de – to remember Acostarse (ue) – to go to bed Almorzar (ue) – to have lunch Costar (ue) – to cost Dormir (ue) – to sleep

* Be aware of verbs which are both reflexive and radically changing Higher verbs

Acordarse (ue) de – to remember Acostarse (ue) – to go to bed Arreglarse – to sort out Bañarse – to have a bath Despertarse (ie) – to wake up Inquietarse de – to worry about Lavarse – to have a wash Levantarse – to get up Olvidarse de – to forget

E – ie

O – ue

(Reflexive Verb Infinitives)

Ar

1. Present tense

Foundation verbs

Conduzco – I drive Conozco – I know Digo – I say / tell Estoy – I am Hago – I do / make Oigo – I hear Pongo – I put / set Salgo – I go out Sé – I know Tengo – I have Traigo – I bring Vengo – I come

(Irregular completely (Need to learn completely))

Foundation verbs

levanto – I get (myself) up levantas – you get up levanta – he/she/it gets up levantamos – we get up levantáis – you get up levantan – they get up

Preocuparse de – to worry about Quedarse / alojarse – to stay Quejarse de – to complain about Relajarse – to relax Ir Divertirse (ie) – to enjoy o.s Dormirse (ue) – to fall asleep Herirse (ie) – to get injured Vestirse (i) – to get dressed

Higher verbs Dormirse (ue) – to fall asleep Doler (ue) – to hurt Encontrar (ue) – to find Llover (ue) – to rain Poder (ue) – to be able to Probar (ue) – to try Soñar (ue) con – to dream of Soler (ue) – to usually …. Volar (ue) – to fly Volver (ue) – to return E–i Elegir (i) – to choose Medir (i) – to measure Pedir (i) – to ask for Reír (i) – to laugh Repetir (i) – to repeat Seguir (i) – to continue Servir (i) – to serve Vestirse (i) – to get dressed

Radical change verbs (E-ie) Empiezo – I begin Empiezas – you begin Empieza – he/she it begins Empezamos – we begin Empezáis – you begin (pl) Empiezan – they begin

(o-ue) Vuelvo – I return Vuelves – you return Vuelve – he/she/it returns Volvemos – we return Volvéis – you return (pl) Vuelven – they return

(e – i) Sirvo – I serve Sirves – You serve Sirve – He/she/it serves Servimos – We serve Servís – You serve (pl) Sirven – They serve

* Notice no change from infinitive in these persons

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Era – he was /used to be

2. Two past tenses

2) Ir – to go

Preterite (Finished action/ once)

Iba – I used to go (etc) (use same endings as SER)

Regular verbs (AR)

Regular Verbs (ER) + (IR)

(infinitive) Hablar – to speak

(Infinitive) Comer – to eat

Hablé – I spoke Hablaste – you spoke Habló – he/she/it spoke Hablamos – we spoke Hablasteis – you spoke (pl) Hablaron – they spoke

Comí – I ate Comiste – you ate Comío – he/she/it ate Comimos – we ate Comisteis – you ate (pl) Comieron – they ate

(Irregular preterites) Ir – to go

Hacer – to do

Fui – I went Fuiste – You went Fue – he went Fuimos – we went Fuistéis – you went Fueron – they went

Hice – I did Hiciste – you did Hizo – he/she/it dd Hicimos – we did Hicisteis – you did (pl) Hicieron – they did

Follow hacer endings for following Puse – I put Pude – I could Tuve – I had Quise – I wanted

Estuve – I was Anduve – I walked Dije – I said Supe – I knew

Eran – they were / used to be

4. Future and conditional tenses

3. The perfect and pluperfect tense * Both tenses are made up of a helper and a past participle (Perfect tense) Helper

Past participle (AR) (ER + IR)

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He – I have Has – You have Ha – He/she/it has Hemos – we have Habéis – you have Han – they have

Infinitive – (Hablar) Hablado – spoken Hablado – spoken Hablado – spoken Hablado – spoken Hablado – spoken Hablado – spoken

Infinitive – (Comer) Comido – eaten Comido – eaten Comido – eaten Comido – eaten Comido – eaten Comido – eaten

Ejemplos: He hablado – I have spoken

He comido – I have eaten

(Irregular past participles) Hecho – done/ made Dicho – said Visto – seen

Puesto – put Escrito – written Roto – broken

Ejemplo: He hecho – I have done

(Imperfect tense (ongoing action/ description / was doing))

(Plu-Perfect tense)

Regular verbs (AR)

Regular Verbs (ER) + (IR)

Helper

Past participle (AR) (ER + IR)

(infinitive) Hablar – to speak

(Infinitive) Comer – to eat

Hablaba – I used to speak Hablabas – you used to speak Hablaba – he/she/it used to speak Hablábamos – we used to speak Hablabsteis – you used to speak (pl) Hablaban – they used to speak

Comía – I used to eat Comías – you used to eat Comía – he/she/it used to eat

Había – I had Habías – You had Había – He/she/it had Habíamos – we had Habiáis – you had Habían – they had

Infinitive – (Hablar) Hablado – spoken Hablado – spoken Hablado – spoken Hablado – spoken Hablado – spoken Hablado – spoken

Comíamos – we used to eat Comíais – you used to eat (pl) Comían – they used to eat

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Infinitive – (Comer) Comido – eaten Comido – eaten Comido – eaten Comido – eaten Comido – eaten Comido – eaten

Ejemplos: Había hablado – I had spoken

Había comido – I had eaten

(* 2 Irregulars only)

Había hecho – I had done

1) Ser – to be (Important**)

(Irregular past participles are same as above)

Era – I was / used to be Eramos – we were/ used to be Eras – you were / used to be Eráis – you were/ used to be

Future (All endings same for AR,ER,IR) Conditional (All endings same for AR,ER,IR) Regular verbs (Future)

Regular Verbs (Conditional)

(infinitive) Hablar – to speak

(Infinitive) Comer – to eat

Hablaré – I will speak Hablarás – you will speak Hablará – he/she/it will speak Hablaremos – we will speak Hablaréis – you will speak (pl) Hablarán – they will speak

Comería – I would eat Comerías – You would eat Comería – He/she/it would eat Comeríamos – We would eat Comeríais – You would eat (pl) Comerían – They would eat

(Irregular stems (Work for both Future and Conditional)) Saldré – I will go out Sabrás – you will know Habrá – there will be Tendremos – we will have Podremos – we will be able to Pondréis – you will put (pl) Vendrán – they will come

Saldría – I would go out Sabrías – You would know Habría – there would be Tendríamos – there would be Pondríamos – We would be able to Pondríais – you would put (pl) Vendrían – they would come

(Compound verbs (Contain part of a familiar verb)) Contener (ie) – to contain Contiene – it contains Obtener (ie) – to obtain Obtengo – I obtain Mantener (ie) – to maintain Mantienen – they maintain Tener lugar (ie) – to take place Tiene lugar – it takes place Tener en cuenta (ie) – to take into account Reconocer – to recognise Reconozco – I recognise Sonreir (i) – to smile Sonrío – I smile Descubrir – To discover Descubro – I discover Aprobar (ue) – to pass (exam) Apruebo – I pass (Families of words (Verbs / nouns / adjectives) VERB

NOUN

Volar (ue) – to fly Llenar – to fill Vender – to sell Viajar – to travel Elegir – to choose Aconsejar – to advise

Vuelo - Flight Venta - sale Viaje – journey Elección – choice Consejo - advice

ADJECTIVE Lleno – full

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